Dutch dating scams
In exchange for assistance, the scammer promised to share money with the victim in exchange for a small amount of money to bribe prison guards.
One variant of the scam may date back to the 18th or 19th centuries, as a very similar letter, entitled "The Letter from Jerusalem", is seen in the memoirs of Eugène François Vidocq, a former French criminal and private investigator. One of these, sent via postal mail, was addressed to a woman's husband, and inquired about his health.
Multiple "people" may write or be involved in schemes as they continue, but they are often fictitious; in many cases, one person controls many fictitious personae all used in scams.
Once the victim's confidence has been gained, the scammer then introduces a delay or monetary hurdle that prevents the deal from occurring as planned, such as "To transmit the money, we need to bribe a bank official. " or "For you to be a party to the transaction, you must have holdings at a Nigerian bank of 0,000 or more" or similar.
Much of the time, however, the needed psychological pressure is self-applied; once the victims have provided money toward the payoff, they feel they have a vested interest in seeing the "deal" through.
Some victims even believe they can cheat the other party, and walk away with all the money instead of just the percentage they were promised.
If a victim makes the payment, the fraudster either invents a series of further fees for the victim or simply disappears.
To help persuade the victim to agree to the deal, the scammer often sends one or more false documents which bear official government stamps, and seals.419 scammers often mention false addresses and use photographs taken from the Internet or from magazines to falsely represent themselves.Often a photograph used by a scammer is not a picture of any person involved in the scheme.The details vary, but the usual story is that a person, often a government or bank employee, knows of a large amount of unclaimed money or gold which they cannot access directly, usually because they have no right to it.Such people, who may be real but impersonated people or fictitious characters played by the con artist, could include, for example, the wife or son of a deposed African leader who has amassed a stolen fortune, a bank employee who knows of a terminally ill wealthy person with no relatives, or a wealthy foreigner who deposited money in the bank just before dying in a plane crash (leaving no will or known next of kin), and similar characters.