territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory.The state's south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin.Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer.Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual.Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains.The United States Forest Service holds about 38% of Idaho's land, the most of any state.Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry, and tourism.A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, and the state also contains the Idaho National Laboratory, which is the country's largest Department of Energy facility.
Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls.
Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield.
The official state nickname is the "Gem State", which references Idaho's natural beauty.
In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M.
Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861.