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In 2003, economics Ph D student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki create a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favor "creative construction" over "creative destruction".
Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises the integrity of Wikipedia is considered vandalism.
In the same interview, Wales also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".
A 2013 article titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" in MIT's Technology Review questioned this claim.
Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of any changes.
Wales replied that he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced. Special interest groups have engaged in edit wars to advance their own political interests.
In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.
Two years later, in 2011, Wales acknowledged the presence of a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011.
The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor.
Vandalism can also include advertising and other types of spam.